Fight against trafficking in persons

Trafficking in persons  is a worldwide social problem whose dimensions go beyond both national and sectoral contexts. In the European area the problem is associated primarily with the economic and political changes in the Central and Eastern European countries, and with the lack of economic prospects in developing countries and the emerging flashpoints of crisis in various parts of the world. Established social, societal and culturological differences enhance the diversity of views on this issue and of approaches to dealing with this phenomenon.

 

 

Nevertheless, the international community has defined several forms taken by slavery exploitation in the 21st century. There is also a growing awareness of the dangers posed to modern society by this phenomenon of violation against fundamental human rights and freedoms.

 

The fact that this is no new phenomenon is clear from the history of international documents seeking to deal with the problem of trafficking in persons. The efforts of the majority of international organisations in the fight against trafficking in persons are geared towards standardising national legislation on preventing, suppressing and punishing trafficking in persons, and towards assistance for the victims of this phenomenon.

 

Back in December 2001, Slovenia set up an Interdepartmental Working Group for the fight against trafficking in persons (IWG, and in February 2002 a National Coordinator was appointed for this field). The Interdepartmental Working Group informs the Slovenian Government of its activities in regular annual reports.

 

In 2004 the Interdepartmental Working Group drafted, and the government confirmed, an Action Plan. The Plan is based on the preventive and protective operation of all bodies and organisations that are represented in the Interdepartmental Working Group for the fight against trafficking in persons. It is also based on training and international cooperation of professional staff, officials and volunteers working in the area of trafficking in persons.

 

Action plans for the next periods substantiate the continuity of work of the interdepartmental working group.

 

 

The concept of trafficking in person

The concept of trafficking in persons is associated with various definitions set out both in professional literature and in international documents. The most common definition of trafficking in persons, and one identifiable in our general conceptualisation, is trafficking in women and children as an especially sensitive category of persons, for the purpose of sexual abuse and sexual exploitation. Yet in addition to this, trafficking in persons is aimed at serving the needs of modern-day slavery, exploitation of labour, begging, trafficking in organs and similar.

 

Currently the most appropriate definition of trafficking in persons is most probably in the protocol supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organised Crime.

 

More information:

 Protocol to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children, supplementing the united nations convention against transnational organized crime (47 KB) (Signed at the General Assembly of the UNO, between 11–16 November 2001; ratified in the Slovenian Parliament on 24 April 2004)

 

 

Forms of exploitation taken by trafficking in persons

Forms of exploitation taken by trafficking in persons according to the Protocol for Prevention, Suppression and Punishment of Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organised Crime:

  • Exploitation for the purpose of prostitution of another person (commercial sexual exploitation) and other forms of sexual exploitation;
    - Forced labour or services;
  • Slavery, servitude and other practices similar to slavery;
  • Removal of organs for the purpose of illegal transplants.

 

 

The following types of abuse connected to human trafficking are primarily discussed:

  • Commercial sexual exploitation,
  • Adoption,
  • Servitude,
  • Begging (earnings go to the controller, not to beggings themselves),
  • Criminal acts such as theft, collecting cash from parking meters and so forth.
  • Other examples of the worst forms of child labour (as set out by the ILO Convention on the Worst Forms of Child Labour)

 

 

Interdepartmental Working Group

In view of the growth trend of this problem, there was a need to ensure a comprehensive and, most importantly, coordinated approach to dealing with this phenomenon through the involvement of all organisations competent for this area.

 

At the same time this was the commitment of our country in its approach to international agreements.

 

On 18 December 2003 a government decision established the government’s interdepartmental working group (IWG). The appointed members are representatives of line ministries, non-governmental organisations and intergovernmental international organisations.

 

 IWG - Composition (67 KB)

 

 

Action Plans

2012 – 2013 Action Plan of the Interdepartmental Working Group for Countering Trafficking in Human Beings
(Confirmed at the session of the Government, 12 April 2012)

 

2010 – 2011 Action Plan of the Interdepartmental Working Group for Countering Trafficking in Human Beings

(Confirmed at the session of the Government, 7 January 2010)

 

2008 - 2009 Action Plan of the Interdepartmental Working Group for Countering Trafficking in Human Beings

(Confirmed at the session of the Government, 12 July 2007)

 

 

In 2004 the Interdepartmental Working Group drafted, and the government confirmed, first Action Plan. The Plan is based on the preventive and protective operation of all bodies and organisations that are represented in the Interdepartmental Working Group for the fight against trafficking in persons. It is also based on training and international cooperation of professional staff, officials and volunteers working in the area of trafficking in persons.

 

 

 

National Coordinator

Sandi Čurin MA, Undersecretary

Ministry of the Interior

Štefanova 2, Ljubljana

Tel.:  +386 1 428 58 49

Mobile: + 386 41 317 694

Telefax:  +386 1 428 48 68

E-mail: sandi.curin[@]gov.si

 

 

National legislation

 

 

Annual Reports

The Interdepartmental Working Group keeps the Slovenian Government informed through regular annual reports.

  

Researches, studies

Slovenia is mostly a transit country for victims of trafficking but is becoming more frequently a destination country, and in some cases also a country of origin. The aim of the research conducted by International Organization for Migration Mission in Slovenia in cooperation with Peace Institute, Ljubljana is to reflect a real picture of the scope of trafficking in Slovenia, to identify gaps in knowledge and counter-trafficking activities, and to establish how the gaps should be filled.

 

See the publication on the website of International Organization for Migration - Ljubljana:

»Where in the puzzle: Trafficking from, to and through Slovenia« (Assessment study, Ljubljana, 2003)

 

IOM Ljubljana cooperates in the regional project “Training of Border guards and Border police and Customs officials in Identifying of and Providing Assistance to the victims of trafficking”. This project has been managed by MRF Brussels and involves missions in Belgium, the UK, The Netherlands, Finlands, Estonia, Lithuania, Slovenia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova and Ukraine. The objective is to reinforce co-operation between border guards, border police with regard to screening, identifying and protecting victims of trafficking.

 

Find more information in the document:

 

 Training of Border guards and Border police and Customs officials in Identifying of and Providing Assistance to the victims of trafficking (335 KB)

 

 

Some facts and figures

  • According to ILO estimates there are at least 2.4 million trafficked persons at any given point in time. ILO estimates on child labour indicate that as many as 1.2 million victims of trafficking are minors (under 18). ILO estimates indicate, however, that 32% of all victims were trafficked into labour exploitation, while 43% were trafficked for sexual exploitation and 25% for a mixture of both. Women and girls make up the overwhelming majority of those trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation (98%). International migrant workers represent a large number of identified trafficking victims for labour exploitation and for forced labour purposes. (Source: http://www.ilo.org/sapfl/Informationresources/ILOPublications/lang--en/docName--WCMS_090356/index.htm )
  • Trafficking in persons is a low-risk criminal enterprise with high returns. According to ILO estimates generates US$ 32 billion in annual profits worldwide despite growing awareness and more effective law enforcement over the last years (Source: http://www.ilo.org/global/About_the_ILO/Media_and_public_information/Feature_stories/lang--en/WCMS_090351/index.htm )
  • There are few reliable statistics on the number of people trafficked into or within Europe, but it is probably of the order of several hundred thousand, estimates European Commission. Yet in 2006 prosecutors brought just 1 500 criminal trafficking cases to court. Only 3 000 victims received assistance. (Source: http://ec.europa.eu/news/justice/090325_1_en.htm )


    SLOVENIA:


  • In 2009, police has dealt with 28 criminal offences in four criminal complaints and four reports against 13 suspects of criminal offences of trafficking in human beings (these are Articles 113, 112 and 175 of the CC-1).The state prosecutor's offices were dealing with 6 criminal charges against nine suspects altogether, but only for the offence of the abuse of prostitution under Article 175 of the CC-1. Judgements of conviction have been issued for 4 persons for criminal offences committed in previous years, of which 2 for the criminal offence of human trafficking under Article 113 of the CC-1. The Slovenian Karitas dealt with 5 persons in crisis accommodation programme and provided a total of 17 days of accommodation. It participated in 2 cases of coordination with other institutions which concerned the cases of 13 persons in total. The NGO Ključ ensured a total of 55 days of secure accommodation for 3 persons. Furthermore, the association provided one form of assistance for 12 other potential victims of human trafficking. (Source:
    Report 2010 )

  • In 2010 a total of 12 proceedings for crimes of trafficking were initiated under Articles 113 (Trafficking in Human Beings), 122 (Enslavement) and 175 (Presenting Persons for Prostitution) of the Penal Code. In the outcome, 10 convictions for the above crimes were secured, however, some of these were the result of investigations conducted in previous years. 33 victims/aggrieved individuals affected by the above trafficking crimes were reported. Of those, the majority were females who were sexually exploited or forced to provide sexual services.
    (Source: Report 2009 )
     
  • In 2008, the Slovenian police dealt with 18 cases (17 of which were criminal acts relating to 11 criminal complaints and 1 report) of trafficking in human beings involving 36 offenders.  The public prosecutor's offices considered 11 criminal complaints and 2 reports against 31 suspects. Investigations were initiated against 7 persons; criminal charges were filed against 10 persons (of which 6 were from previous years); court sentences were pronounced against 4 persons (of which 3 were from previous years).
    (Source: Report 2008  )

 

 

 

International legislation

Key international documents:

 

 

1. UN documents

 

 UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime(2000) (47 KB)

(Signed at the General Assembly of  the UNO, between 11–16 November 2001; ratified in the Slovenian Parliament on 24 April 2004)

 

  

2. Council of Europe Documents
Report concerning the implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings by Slovenia  (adopted on 8 November 2013)

Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings 

(158 KB) (adopted by National Assembly, 15. June 2009 ) 

 

 

3. EU Documents

 

The EU Strategy towards the Eradication of Trafficking in Human Beings 2012–2016 (June 2012) 

 

EU directive 2011/36/EU on prevention and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims  (April 2011)

 

 EU plan on best practices, standards and procedures for combating and preventing trafficking in human beings (218 KB), (December 2005)

 

 Brussels declaration on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings (91 KB), September 2002   (September 2002)

 

 EU on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings (110 KB) (Council Framework Desicion of 19 July 2002) (July 2002)

  

 

4. OSCE Document

 OSCE on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings (December 2003) (86 KB)

 

 

5. Other International Documents

 

 

International organisations

List of key international organisations addressing the issue of the fight against trafficking in persons.

 

 

 

Assistance for the victims

List of organisations in Slovenia providing assistance to victims of trafficking in persons.

 

Non-governmental organisation KLJUČ [KEY] Society, Centre for the fight against trafficking in persons

PP 1646

1000 Ljubljana – Slovenija

Tel. 080 1722

e-mail: kljuc.center[@]siol.net

Website: http://drustvo-kljuc.si/indexen.php 

 

 

Slovenska karitas

Kristanova ulica 1

1000 Ljubljana

Phone: + 386 1/ 300 59 68, GSM: 031/ 470- 151

E-mail: programi.karitas[@]siol.net

Website: www.karitas.si/predstavitev/index_eng.php 

 

Caritas Slovenia offers help to victims of trafficking in persons by providing suitable accommodation, meals; social and psychological assistance, legal advice; translating and interpreting services; helping arrange the victims' status, counselling and informing people of their legal rights in a language they understand, assisting in the socialisation, revitalisation and reintegration; offering legal representation and empowerment, and integration into a network of Slovenian and international institutions (competent state institutions, Coatnet, Caritas Europa, Caritas Internationalis, NGOs, etc.).

 

 

Slovene Philanthropy, an Association for the Promotion of Voluntary Work

Poljanska cesta 12, 1000  Ljubljana

Phone.: 386 (0)1 430 1288 

e-mail: info[@]filantropija.org

Website: http://www.filantropija.org/  

 

Slovenian Philanthropy is active in the field of migration, and it particularly monitors the phenomenon of trafficking connected to the unaccompanied children.