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Economic cooperation and trade

Businesses that trade with the United Kingdom will be faced with changes both in the case of an agreed upon Brexit as well as in a no-deal scenario. In the latter case, on 30 March 2019 the World Trade Organization (WTO) rules on customs tariffs and quotas on goods will take effect for all goods traded between the United Kingdom and the Union.

Based on currently available estimates, due to their interconnectedness the consequences of Brexit will be felt practically in all fields of cooperation. This goes for both citizens and economic entities in areas as varied as the flow of goods, services, capital, labour, citizens' rights, visa policy, logistics, customs and other processes, personal information and so on.

In the event of a no-deal Brexit, from the EU perspective the United Kingdom is to become a third country without a preferential agreement, meaning that upon the withdrawal its citizens and businesses will become third country subjects. For goods originating in the United Kingdom, the WTO rules and the MFN ('Most Favoured Nation') customs tariffs will be applied when imported into the EU, the same applying to goods originating in the Union that will be imported into the United Kingdom. EU legislation will cease to apply in the United Kingdom. If the essential legislation and bilateral agreements are not adopted on time, all permits and certificates, including the mutual recognition of vocational qualifications and others, will cease to be valid. Complications resulting from altered border-control protocols are expected, driven by customs and phytosanitary checks, prolonged procedures, logistical issues and other factors.